STRTOUL(3)                 Linux Programmer's Manual                STRTOUL(3)

       strtoul, strtoull, strtouq - convert a string to an unsigned long inte-

       #include <stdlib.h>

       unsigned long int
       strtoul(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       unsigned long long int
       strtoull(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       The strtoul() function converts the initial part of the string in  nptr
       to  an  unsigned  long integer value according to the given base, which
       must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

       The string must begin with an  arbitrary  amount  of  white  space  (as
       determined  by  isspace(3))  followed  by  a single optional `+' or `-'
       sign.  If base is zero or 16, the string may then include a  `0x'  pre-
       fix,  and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is
       taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is `0', in  which  case
       it is taken as 8 (octal).

       The  remainder of the string is converted to an unsigned long int value
       in the obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is  not  a
       valid  digit  in the given base.  (In bases above 10, the letter `A' in
       either upper or lower case represents 10, `B'  represents  11,  and  so
       forth, with `Z' representing 35.)

       If  endptr  is  not  NULL,  strtoul()  stores  the address of the first
       invalid character in *endptr.  If there were no  digits  at  all,  str-
       toul()  stores  the  original value of nptr in *endptr (and returns 0).
       In particular, if *nptr is not `\0' but **endptr is `\0' on return, the
       entire string is valid.

       The  strtoull()  function  works  just  like the strtoul() function but
       returns an unsigned long long integer value.

       The strtoul() function returns either the result of the conversion  or,
       if  there  was  a leading minus sign, the negation of the result of the
       conversion, unless the original (non-negated) value would overflow;  in
       the  latter case, strtoul() returns ULONG_MAX and sets the global vari-
       able errno to ERANGE.  Precisely the same holds  for  strtoull()  (with
       ULLONG_MAX instead of ULONG_MAX).

       ERANGE The resulting value was out of range.

       EINVAL (not in C99) The given base contains an unsupported value.

       The  implementation  may also set errno to EINVAL in case no conversion
       was performed (no digits seen, and 0 returned).

       In locales other than  the  "C"  locale,  also  other  strings  may  be
       accepted.   (For example, the thousands separator of the current locale
       may be supported.)

       BSD also has

           strtouq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       with completely analogous definition.  Depending on the wordsize of the
       current  architecture,  this may be equivalent to strtoull() or to str-

       strtoul() conforms to SVID 3, BSD 4.3, ISO 9899 (C99)  and  POSIX,  and
       strtoull() to ISO 9899 (C99) and POSIX-2001.

       atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtol(3)

GNU                               2002-05-30                        STRTOUL(3)