panel(3X)                                                            panel(3X)

       panel - panel stack extension for curses

       #include <panel.h>

       cc [flags] sourcefiles -lpanel -lncurses

       PANEL *new_panel(WINDOW *win)
       int bottom_panel(PANEL *pan)
       int top_panel(PANEL *pan)
       int show_panel(PANEL *pan)
       void update_panels();
       int hide_panel(PANEL *pan)
       WINDOW *panel_window(const PANEL *pan)
       int replace_panel(PANEL *pan, WINDOW *window)
       int move_panel(PANEL *pan, int starty, int startx)
       int panel_hidden(const PANEL *pan)
       PANEL *panel_above(const PANEL *pan)
       PANEL *panel_below(const PANEL *pan)
       int set_panel_userptr(PANEL *pan, const void *ptr)
       const void *panel_userptr(const PANEL *pan)
       int del_panel(PANEL *pan)

       Panels  are  curses(3X) windows with the added feature of depth.  Panel
       functions allow the use of stacked windows and ensure the  proper  por-
       tions  of  each  window and the curses stdscr window are hidden or dis-
       played when panels are added, moved, modified or removed.  The  set  of
       currently  visible panels is the stack of panels.  The stdscr window is
       beneath all panels, and is not considered part of the stack.

       A window is associated with every panel. The panel routines enable  you
       to create, move, hides, and show panels, as well as position a panel at
       any desired location in the stack.

       Panel routines are a functional layer added to  curses(3X),  make  only
       high-level curses calls, and work anywhere terminfo curses does.

              allocates   a   PANEL  structure, associates it with win, places
              the panel on the top of the stack  (causes  it to  be  displayed
              above any other panel) and returns a pointer to the new panel.

       void update_panels()
              refreshes  the  virtual  screen to reflect the relations between
              the panels in the stack, but does not call doupdate() to refresh
              the  physical  screen.   Use  this  function and not wrefresh or
              wnoutrefresh.  update_panels() may  be  called  more  than  once
              before  a  call  to  doupdate(),  but doupdate() is the function
              responsible for updating the physical screen.

              removes the given panel from  the   stack  and  deallocates  the
              PANEL structure (but not its associated window).

              removes  the  given panel from the panel stack and thus hides it
              from view. The PANEL structure is not lost, merely removed  from
              the stack.

              makes  a hidden panel visible by placing it on top of the panels
              in the panel stack. See COMPATIBILITY below.

              puts the given visible panel on top of all panels in the  stack.
              See COMPATIBILITY below.

              puts panel at the bottom of all panels.

              moves the given panel window so that its upper-left corner is at
              starty, startx.  It does not change the position of the panel in
              the stack.  Be sure to use this function, not mvwin(), to move a
              panel window.

              replaces the current window of panel with  window  (useful,  for
              example  if you want to resize a panel; if you're using ncurses,
              you can call replace_panel on the output  of  wresize(3X)).   It
              does not change the position of the panel in the stack.

              returns a pointer to the panel above pan.  If the panel argument
              is (PANEL *)0, it returns a pointer to the bottom panel  in  the

              returns  a  pointer  to  the panel just below pan.  If the panel
              argument is (PANEL *)0, it returns a pointer to the top panel in
              the stack.

              sets the panel's user pointer.

              returns the user pointer for a given panel.

              returns a pointer to the window of the given panel.

       Each  routine  that  returns a pointer returns NULL if an error occurs.
       Each routine that returns an int value returns OK if it  executes  suc-
       cessfully and ERR if not.

       Reasonable  care  has  been  taken  to  ensure  compatibility with  the
       native  panel facility introduced in SVr3.2  (inspection  of  the  SVr4
       manual  pages  suggests  the  programming interface is unchanged).  The
       PANEL data structures are merely  similar. The  programmer is cautioned
       not to directly use PANEL fields.

       The functions show_panel() and top_panel() are identical in this imple-
       mentation, and work equally well with displayed or hidden  panels.   In
       the native System V implementation, show_panel() is intended for making
       a hidden panel visible (at the top of the  stack)  and  top_panel()  is
       intended  for  making  an  already-visible panel move to the top of the
       stack. You are cautioned to use the correct function to ensure compati-
       bility with native panel libraries.

       In  your  library  list, libpanel.a should be before libncurses.a; that
       is, you want to say `-lpanel  -lncurses',  not  the  other  way  around
       (which  would  give  you  a  link  error using GNU ld(1) and some other

       panel.h interface for the panels library

       libpanel.a the panels library itself


       Originally written by Warren Tucker <>,  primar-
       ily  to  assist  in  porting u386mon to systems without a native panels
       library.  Repackaged for ncurses by Zeyd ben-Halim.