MYSQLDUMP(1)                 MySQL Database System                MYSQLDUMP(1)

       mysqldump - a database backup program

       mysqldump [options] [db_name [tbl_name ...]]

       The mysqldump client is a backup program originally written by Igor
       Romanenko. It can be used to dump a database or a collection of
       databases for backup or transfer to another SQL server (not necessarily
       a MySQL server). The dump typically contains SQL statements to create
       the table, populate it, or both. However, mysqldump can also be used to
       generate files in CSV, other delimited text, or XML format.

       If you are doing a backup on the server and your tables all are MyISAM
       tables, consider using the mysqlhotcopy instead because it can
       accomplish faster backups and faster restores. See mysqlhotcopy(1).

       There are three general ways to invoke mysqldump:

          shell> mysqldump [options] db_name [tables]
          shell> mysqldump [options] --databases db_name1 [db_name2 db_name3...]
          shell> mysqldump [options] --all-databases

       If you do not name any tables following db_name or if you use the
       --databases or --all-databases option, entire databases are dumped.

       To get a list of the options your version of mysqldump supports,
       execute mysqldump --help.

       Some mysqldump options are shorthand for groups of other options.
       --opt and --compact fall into this category. For example, use of --opt
       is the same as specifying --add-drop-table --add-locks --create-options
       --disable-keys --extended-insert --lock-tables --quick --set-charset.
       Note that as of MySQL 4.1, all of the options that --opt stands for
       also are on by default because --opt is on by default.

       To reverse the effect of a group option, uses its --skip-xxx form
       (--skip-opt or --skip-compact). It is also possible to select only part
       of the effect of a group option by following it with options that
       enable or disable specific features. Here are some examples:

       o  To select the effect of --opt except for some features, use the
          --skip option for each feature. For example, to disable extended
          inserts and memory buffering, use --opt --skip-extended-insert
          --skip-quick. (As of MySQL 4.1, --skip-extended-insert --skip-quick
          is sufficient because --opt is on by default.)

       o  To reverse --opt for all features except index disabling and table
          locking, use --skip-opt --disable-keys --lock-tables.

       When you selectively enable or disable the effect of a group option,
       order is important because options are processed first to last. For
       example, --disable-keys --lock-tables --skip-opt would not have the
       intended effect; it is the same as --skip-opt by itself.

       mysqldump can retrieve and dump table contents row by row, or it can
       retrieve the entire content from a table and buffer it in memory before
       dumping it. Buffering in memory can be a problem if you are dumping
       large tables. To dump tables row by row, use the --quick option (or
       --opt, which enables --quick).  --opt (and hence --quick) is enabled by
       default as of MySQL 4.1 to enable memory buffering, use --skip-quick.

       If you are using a recent version of mysqldump to generate a dump to be
       reloaded into a very old MySQL server, you should not use the --opt or
       --extended-insert option. Use --skip-opt instead.

       Before MySQL 4.1.2, out-of-range numeric values such as -inf and inf,
       as well as NaN (not-a-number) values are dumped by mysqldump as NULL.
       You can see this using the following sample table:

          mysql> CREATE TABLE t (f DOUBLE);
          mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(1e+111111111111111111111);
          mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(-1e111111111111111111111);
          mysql> SELECT f FROM t;
          | f    |
          |  inf |
          | -inf |

       For this table, mysqldump produces the following data output:

          -- Dumping data for table `t`

       The significance of this behavior is that if you dump and restore the
       table, the new table has contents that differ from the original
       contents. This problem is fixed as of MySQL 4.1.2; you cannot insert
       inf in the table, so this mysqldump behavior is only relevant when you
       deal with old servers.

       mysqldump supports the following options:

       o  --help, -?

          Display a help message and exit.

       o  --add-drop-database

          Add a DROP DATABASE statement before each CREATE DATABASE statement.
          Added in MySQL 4.1.13.

       o  --add-drop-table

          Add a DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE statement.

       o  --add-locks

          Surround each table dump with LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES
          statements. This results in faster inserts when the dump file is
          reloaded. See Section 2.13, "Speed of INSERT Statements".

       o  --all-databases, -A

          Dump all tables in all databases. This is the same as using the
          --databases option and naming all the databases on the command line.

       o  --allow-keywords

          Allow creation of column names that are keywords. This works by
          prefixing each column name with the table name.

       o  --character-sets-dir=path

          The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 9.1,
          "The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting".

       o  --comments, -i

          Write additional information in the dump file such as program
          version, server version, and host. This option is enabled by
          default. To suppress this additional information, use
          --skip-comments. This option was added in MySQL 4.0.17.

       o  --compact

          Produce less verbose output. This option suppresses comments and
          enables the --skip-add-drop-table, --no-set-names,
          --skip-disable-keys, and --skip-add-locks options. Added in MySQL

       o  --compatible=name

          Produce output that is more compatible with other database systems
          or with older MySQL servers. The value of name can be ansi,
          mysql323, mysql40, postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb,
          no_key_options, no_table_options, or no_field_options. To use
          several values, separate them by commas. These values have the same
          meaning as the corresponding options for setting the server SQL
          mode. See the section called "SQL MODES".

          This option does not guarantee compatibility with other servers. It
          only enables those SQL mode values that are currently available for
          making dump output more compatible. For example, --compatible=oracle
          does not map data types to Oracle types or use Oracle comment

          This option requires a server version of 4.1.0 or higher. With older
          servers, it does nothing.

       o  --complete-insert, -c

          Use complete INSERT statements that include column names.

       o  --compress, -C

          Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
          both support compression.

       o  --create-options

          Include all MySQL-specific table options in the CREATE TABLE
          statements. Before MySQL 4.1.2, use --all instead.

       o  --databases, -B

          Dump several databases. Normally, mysqldump treats the first name
          argument on the command line as a database name and following names
          as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments as
          database names.  CREATE DATABASE and USE statements are included in
          the output before each new database.

       o  --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

          Write a debugging log. The debug_options string is often
          'd:t:o,file_name'. The default value is

       o  --default-character-set=charset_name

          Use charset_name as the default character set. See Section 9.1, "The
          Character Set Used for Data and Sorting". If no character set is
          specified, mysqldump from MySQL 4.1.2 or later uses utf8, and
          earlier versions use latin1.

       o  --delayed-insert

          Write INSERT DELAYED statements rather than INSERT statements.

       o  --delete-master-logs

          On a master replication server, delete the binary logs after
          performing the dump operation. This option automatically enables
          --first-slave before MySQL 4.1.8 and enables --master-data
          thereafter. It was added in MySQL 3.23.57 (for MySQL 3.23) and MySQL
          4.0.13 (for MySQL 4.0).

       o  --disable-keys, -K

          For each table, surround the INSERT statements with /*!40000 ALTER
          TABLE tbl_name DISABLE KEYS */; and /*!40000 ALTER TABLE tbl_name
          ENABLE KEYS */; statements. This makes loading the dump file into a
          MySQL 4.0 or newer server faster because the indexes are created
          after all rows are inserted. This option is effective for MyISAM
          tables only.

       o  --extended-insert, -e

          Use multiple-row INSERT syntax that include several VALUES lists.
          This results in a smaller dump file and speeds up inserts when the
          file is reloaded.

       o  --fields-terminated-by=..., --fields-enclosed-by=...,
          --fields-optionally-enclosed-by=..., --fields-escaped-by=...

          These options are used with the -T option and have the same meaning
          as the corresponding clauses for LOAD DATA INFILE. See Section 2.5,
          "LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax".

       o  --first-slave, -x

          Deprecated. Renamed to --lock-all-tables in MySQL 4.1.8.

       o  --flush-logs, -F

          Flush the MySQL server log files before starting the dump. This
          option requires the RELOAD privilege. Note that if you use this
          option in combination with the --all-databases (or -A) option, the
          logs are flushed for each database dumped. The exception is when
          using --lock-all-tables or --master-data: In this case, the logs are
          flushed only once, corresponding to the moment that all tables are
          locked. If you want your dump and the log flush to happen at exactly
          the same moment, you should use --flush-logs together with either
          --lock-all-tables or --master-data.

       o  --force, -f

          Continue even if an SQL error occurs during a table dump.

       o  --host=host_name, -h host_name

          Dump data from the MySQL server on the given host. The default host
          is localhost.

       o  --hex-blob

          Dump binary columns using hexadecimal notation (for example, 'abc'
          becomes 0x616263). The affected data types are BINARY, VARBINARY,
          and BLOB in MySQL 4.1 and up, and CHAR BINARY, VARCHAR BINARY, and
          BLOB in MySQL 4.0. This option was added in MySQL 4.0.23 and 4.1.8.

       o  --ignore-table=db_name.tbl_name

          Do not dump the given table, which must be specified using both the
          database and table names. To ignore multiple tables, use this option
          multiple times. This option was added in MySQL 4.1.9.

       o  --insert-ignore

          Write INSERT statements with the IGNORE option. This option was
          added in MySQL 4.1.12.

       o  --lines-terminated-by=...

          This option is used with the -T option and has the same meaning as
          the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE. See Section 2.5,
          "LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax".

       o  --lock-all-tables, -x

          Lock all tables across all databases. This is achieved by acquiring
          a global read lock for the duration of the whole dump. This option
          automatically turns off --single-transaction and --lock-tables.
          Added in MySQL 4.1.8.

       o  --lock-tables, -l

          Lock all tables before dumping them. The tables are locked with READ
          LOCAL to allow concurrent inserts in the case of MyISAM tables. For
          transactional tables such as InnoDB and BDB, --single-transaction is
          a much better option, because it does not need to lock the tables at

          Please note that when dumping multiple databases, --lock-tables
          locks tables for each database separately. Therefore, this option
          does not guarantee that the tables in the dump file are logically
          consistent between databases. Tables in different databases may be
          dumped in completely different states.

       o  --master-data[=value]

          Write the binary log filename and position to the output. This
          option requires the RELOAD privilege and the binary log must be
          enabled. If the option value is equal to 1, the position and
          filename are written to the dump output in the form of a CHANGE
          MASTER statement. If the dump is from a master server and you use it
          to set up a slave server, the CHANGE MASTER statement causes the
          slave to start from the correct position in the master's binary
          logs. If the option value is equal to 2, the CHANGE MASTER statement
          is written as an SQL comment. (This is the default action if value
          is omitted.)  value may be given as of MySQL 4.1.8; before that, do
          not specify an option value.

          The --master-data option automatically turns off --lock-tables. It
          also turns on --lock-all-tables, unless --single-transaction also is
          specified (in which case, a global read lock is acquired only for a
          short time at the beginning of the dump. See also the description
          for --single-transaction. In all cases, any action on logs happens
          at the exact moment of the dump.

       o  --no-autocommit

          Enclose the INSERT statements for each dumped table within SET
          AUTOCOMMIT=0 and COMMIT statements.

       o  --no-create-db, -n

          This option suppresses the CREATE DATABASE statements that are
          otherwise included in the output if the --databases or
          --all-databases option is given.

       o  --no-create-info, -t

          Do not write CREATE TABLE statements that re-create each dumped

       o  --no-data, -d

          Do not write any table row information (that is, do not dump table
          contents). This is very useful if you want to dump only the CREATE
          TABLE statement for the table.

       o  --opt

          This option is shorthand; it is the same as specifying
          --add-drop-table --add-locks --create-options --disable-keys
          --extended-insert --lock-tables --quick --set-charset. It should
          give you a fast dump operation and produce a dump file that can be
          reloaded into a MySQL server quickly.

          As of MySQL 4.1, --opt is enabled by default. Use --skip-opt to
          disable it.  See the discussion at the beginning of this section for
          information about selectively enabling or disabling certain of the
          options affected by --opt.

       o  --order-by-primary

          Sorts each table's rows by its primary key, or by its first unique
          index, if such an index exists. This is useful when dumping a MyISAM
          table to be loaded into an InnoDB table, but will make the dump
          itself take considerably longer. This option was added in MySQL

       o  --password[=password], -p[password]

          The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
          short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option
          and the password. If you omit the password value following the
          --password or -p option on the command line, you are prompted for

          Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
          insecure. See Section 7.6, "Keeping Your Password Secure".

       o  --port=port_num, -P port_num

          The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

       o  --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

          The connection protocol to use. Added in MySQL 4.1.

       o  --quick, -q

          This option is useful for dumping large tables. It forces mysqldump
          to retrieve rows for a table from the server a row at a time rather
          than retrieving the entire row set and buffering it in memory before
          writing it out.

       o  --quote-names, -Q

          Quote database, table, and column names within '`' characters. If
          the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode is enabled, names are quoted within '"'
          characters. As of MySQL 4.1.1, --quote-names is enabled by default.
          It can be disabled with --skip-quote-names, but this option should
          be given after any option such as --compatible that may enable

       o  --result-file=file, -r file

          Direct output to a given file. This option should be used on Windows
          to prevent newline '0(cq characters from being converted to '\r0(cq
          carriage return/newline sequences. The result file is created and
          its contents overwritten, even if an error occurs while generating
          the dump. The previous contents are lost.

       o  --set-charset

          Add SET NAMES default_character_set to the output. This option is
          enabled by default. To suppress the SET NAMES statement, use
          --skip-set-charset. This option was added in MySQL 4.1.2.

       o  --single-transaction

          This option issues a BEGIN SQL statement before dumping data from
          the server. It is useful only with transactional tables such as
          InnoDB and BDB, because then it dumps the consistent state of the
          database at the time when BEGIN was issued without blocking any

          When using this option, you should keep in mind that only InnoDB
          tables are dumped in a consistent state. For example, any MyISAM or
          MEMORY tables dumped while using this option may still change state.

          The --single-transaction option was added in MySQL 4.0.2. This
          option is mutually exclusive with the --lock-tables option, because
          LOCK TABLES causes any pending transactions to be committed

          This option is not supported for MySQL Cluster tables; the results
          cannot be guaranteed to be consistent due to the fact that the
          NDBCluster storage engine supports only the READ_COMMITTED
          transaction isolation level. You should always use NDB backup and
          restore instead.

          To dump large tables, you should combine this option with --quick.

       o  --skip-opt

          See the description for the --opt option.

       o  --socket=path, -S path

          For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
          Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

       o  --skip-comments

          See the description for the --comments option.

       o  --ssl*

          Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the
          server via SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates.
          See Section 7.7.3, "SSL Command Options".

       o  --tab=path, -T path

          Produce tab-separated data files. For each dumped table, mysqldump
          creates a tbl_name.sql file that contains the CREATE TABLE statement
          that creates the table, and a tbl_name.txt file that contains its
          data. The option value is the directory in which to write the files.

          By default, the .txt data files are formatted using tab characters
          between column values and a newline at the end of each line. The
          format can be specified explicitly using the --fields-xxx and
          --lines--xxx options.

          Note: This option should be used only when mysqldump is run on the
          same machine as the mysqld server. You must have the FILE privilege,
          and the server must have permission to write files in the directory
          that you specify.

       o  --tables

          Override the --databases or -B option.  mysqldump regards all name
          arguments following the option as table names.

       o  --user=user_name, -u user_name

          The MySQL username to use when connecting to the server.

       o  --verbose, -v

          Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

       o  --version, -V

          Display version information and exit.

       o  --where='where_condition', -w 'where_condition'

          Dump only rows selected by the given WHERE condition. Quotes around
          the condition are mandatory if it contains spaces or other
          characters that are special to your command interpreter.



       o  --xml, -X

          Write dump output as well-formed XML.

       You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value

       o  max_allowed_packet

          The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The
          value of the variable can be up to 16MB before MySQL 4.0, and up to
          1GB from MySQL 4.0 on.

       o  net_buffer_length

          The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication. When
          creating multiple-row-insert statements (as with option
          --extended-insert or --opt), mysqldump creates rows up to
          net_buffer_length length. If you increase this variable, you should
          also ensure that the net_buffer_length variable in the MySQL server
          is at least this large.

       It is also possible to set variables by using
       --set-variable=var_name=value or -O var_name=value syntax. However,
       this syntax is deprecated as of MySQL 4.0.

       The most common use of mysqldump is probably for making a backup of an
       entire database:

          shell> mysqldump db_name > backup-file.sql

       You can read the dump file back into the server like this:

          shell> mysql db_name < backup-file.sql

       Or like this:

          shell> mysql -e "source /path-to-backup/backup-file.sql" db_name

       mysqldump is also very useful for populating databases by copying data
       from one MySQL server to another:

          shell> mysqldump --opt db_name | mysql --host=remote_host -C db_name

       It is possible to dump several databases with one command:

          shell> mysqldump --databases db_name1 [db_name2 ...] > my_databases.sql

       To dump all databases, use the --all-databases option:

          shell> mysqldump --all-databases > all_databases.sql

       For InnoDB tables, mysqldump provides a way of making an online backup:

          shell> mysqldump --all-databases --single-transaction > all_databases.sql

       This backup just needs to acquire a global read lock on all tables
       (using FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK) at the beginning of the dump. As
       soon as this lock has been acquired, the binary log coordinates are
       read and the lock is released. If and only if one long updating
       statement is running when the FLUSH statement is issued, the MySQL
       server may get stalled until that long statement finishes, and then the
       dump becomes lock-free. If the update statements that the MySQL server
       receives are short (in terms of execution time), the initial lock
       period should not be noticeable, even with many updates.

       For point-in-time recovery (also known as "roll-forward," when you need
       to restore an old backup and replay the changes that happened since
       that backup), it is often useful to rotate the binary log (see
       Section 10.4, "The Binary Log") or at least know the binary log
       coordinates to which the dump corresponds:

          shell> mysqldump --all-databases --master-data=2 > all_databases.sql


          shell> mysqldump --all-databases --flush-logs --master-data=2
                        > all_databases.sql

       The --master-data and --single-transaction options can be used
       simultaneously as of MySQL 4.1.8, which provides a convenient way to
       make an online backup suitable for point-in-time recovery if tables are
       stored using the InnoDB storage engine.

       For more information on making backups, see Section 8.1, "Database
       Backups", and Section 8.2, "Example Backup and Recovery Strategy".

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MySQL 4.1                         11/02/2006                      MYSQLDUMP(1)