MYSQL(1)                     MySQL Database System                    MYSQL(1)

       mysql - the MySQL command-line tool

       mysql [options] db_name

       mysql is a simple SQL shell (with GNU readline capabilities). It
       supports interactive and non-interactive use. When used interactively,
       query results are presented in an ASCII-table format. When used
       non-interactively (for example, as a filter), the result is presented
       in tab-separated format. The output format can be changed using command

       If you have problems due to insufficient memory for large result sets,
       use the --quick option. This forces mysql to retrieve results from the
       server a row at a time rather than retrieving the entire result set and
       buffering it in memory before displaying it. This is done by returning
       the result set using the mysql_use_result() C API function in the
       client/server library rather than mysql_store_result().

       Using mysql is very easy. Invoke it from the prompt of your command
       interpreter as follows:

          shell> mysql db_name


          shell> mysql --user=user_name --password=your_password db_name

       Then type an SQL statement, end it with ';', \g, or \G and press Enter.

       You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file) like this:

          shell> mysql db_name < script.sql >

       mysql supports the following options:

       o  --help, -?

          Display a help message and exit.

       o  --auto-rehash

          Enable automatic rehashing. This option is on by default, which
          enables table and column name completion. Use --skip-auto-rehash to
          disable rehashing. That causes mysql to start faster, but you must
          issue the rehash command if you want to use table and column name

       o  --batch, -B

          Print results using tab as the column separator, with each row on a
          new line. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

       o  --character-sets-dir=path

          The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 9.1,
          "The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting".

       o  --column-names

          Write column names in results.

       o  --compress, -C

          Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
          both support compression.

       o  --database=db_name, -D db_name

          The database to use. This is useful primarily in an option file.

       o  --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

          Write a debugging log. The debug_options string often is
          'd:t:o,file_name'. The default is 'd:t:o,/tmp/mysql.trace'.

       o  --debug-info, -T

          Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       o  --default-character-set=charset_name

          Use charset_name as the default character set. See Section 9.1, "The
          Character Set Used for Data and Sorting".

       o  --delimiter=str

          Set the statement delimiter. The default is the semicolon character

       o  --execute=statement, -e statement

          Execute the statement and quit. The default output format is like
          that produced with --batch. See Section 3.1, "Using Options on the
          Command Line", for some examples.

       o  --force, -f

          Continue even if an SQL error occurs.

       o  --host=host_name, -h host_name

          Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

       o  --html, -H

          Produce HTML output.

       o  --ignore-spaces, -i

          Ignore spaces after function names. The effect of this is described
          in the discussion for the IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode (see the section
          called "SQL MODES").

       o  --line-numbers

          Write line numbers for errors. Disable this with

       o  --local-infile[={0|1}]

          Enable or disable LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA INFILE. With no
          value, the option enables LOCAL. The option may be given as
          --local-infile=0 or --local-infile=1 to explicitly disable or enable
          LOCAL. Enabling LOCAL has no effect if the server does not also
          support it.

       o  --named-commands, -G

          Enable named mysql commands. Long-format commands are allowed, not
          just short-format commands. For example, quit and \q both are
          recognized. Use --skip-named-commands to disable named commands. See
          the section called "MYSQL COMMANDS".

       o  --no-auto-rehash, -A

          Deprecated form of -skip-auto-rehash. See the description for

       o  --no-beep, -b

          Do not beep when errors occur.

       o  --no-named-commands, -g

          Disable named commands. Use the \* form only, or use named commands
          only at the beginning of a line ending with a semicolon (';'). As of
          MySQL 3.23.22, mysql starts with this option enabled by default.
          However, even with this option, long-format commands still work from
          the first line. See the section called "MYSQL COMMANDS".

       o  --no-pager

          Deprecated form of --skip-pager. See the --pager option.

       o  --no-tee

          Do not copy output to a file.  the section called "MYSQL COMMANDS",
          discusses tee files further.

       o  --one-database, -o

          Ignore statements except those for the default database named on the
          command line. This is useful for skipping updates to other databases
          in the binary log.

       o  --pager[=command]

          Use the given command for paging query output. If the command is
          omitted, the default pager is the value of your PAGER environment
          variable. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename], and so
          forth. This option works only on Unix. It does not work in batch
          mode. To disable paging, use --skip-pager.  the section called
          "MYSQL COMMANDS", discusses output paging further.

       o  --password[=password], -p[password]

          The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
          short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option
          and the password. If you omit the password value following the
          --password or -p option on the command line, you are prompted for

          Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
          insecure. See Section 7.6, "Keeping Your Password Secure".

       o  --port=port_num, -P port_num

          The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

       o  --prompt=format_str

          Set the prompt to the specified format. The default is mysql>. The
          special sequences that the prompt can contain are described in the
          section called "MYSQL COMMANDS".

       o  --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

          The connection protocol to use. Added in MySQL 4.1.

       o  --quick, -q

          Do not cache each query result, print each row as it is received.
          This may slow down the server if the output is suspended. With this
          option, mysql does not use the history file.

       o  --raw, -r

          Write column values without escape conversion. Often used with the
          --batch option.

       o  --reconnect

          If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to
          reconnect. A single reconnect attempt is made each time the
          connection is lost. To suppress reconnection behavior, use
          --skip-reconnect. Added in MySQL 4.1.0.

       o  --safe-updates, --i-am-a-dummy, -U

          Allow only those UPDATE and DELETE statements that specify which
          rows to modify by using key values. If you have set this option in
          an option file, you can override it by using --safe-updates on the
          command line. See the section called "MYSQL TIPS", for more
          information about this option.

       o  --secure-auth

          Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1.1) format. This
          prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password
          format. This option was added in MySQL 4.1.1.

       o  --sigint-ignore

          Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control-C).
          This option was added in MySQL 4.1.6.

       o  --silent, -s

          Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be given multiple
          times to produce less and less output.

       o  --skip-column-names, -N

          Do not write column names in results.

       o  --skip-line-numbers, -L

          Do not write line numbers for errors. Useful when you want to
          compare result files that include error messages.

       o  --socket=path, -S path

          For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
          Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

       o  --ssl*

          Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the
          server via SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates.
          See Section 7.7.3, "SSL Command Options".

       o  --table, -t

          Display output in table format. This is the default for interactive
          use, but can be used to produce table output in batch mode.

       o  --tee=file_name

          Append a copy of output to the given file. This option does not work
          in batch mode. in the section called "MYSQL COMMANDS", discusses tee
          files further.

       o  --unbuffered, -n

          Flush the buffer after each query.

       o  --user=user_name, -u user_name

          The MySQL username to use when connecting to the server.

       o  --verbose, -v

          Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program does. This
          option can be given multiple times to produce more and more output.
          (For example, -v -v -v produces table output format even in batch

       o  --version, -V

          Display version information and exit.

       o  --vertical, -E

          Print query output rows vertically (one line per column value).
          Without this option, you can specify vertical output for individual
          statements by terminating them with \G.

       o  --wait, -w

          If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of

       o  --xml, -X

          Produce XML output.

       You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value

       o  connect_timeout

          The number of seconds before connection timeout. (Default value is

       o  max_allowed_packet

          The maximum packet length to send to or receive from the server.
          (Default value is 16MB.)

       o  max_join_size

          The automatic limit for rows in a join when using --safe-updates.
          (Default value is 1,000,000.)

       o  net_buffer_length

          The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication. (Default value
          is 16KB.)

       o  select_limit

          The automatic limit for SELECT statements when using --safe-updates.
          (Default value is 1,000.)

       It is also possible to set variables by using
       --set-variable=var_name=value or -O var_name=value syntax. In MySQL
       4.1, this syntax is deprecated.

       On Unix, the mysql client writes a record of executed statements to a
       history file. By default, the history file is named .mysql_history and
       is created in your home directory. To specify a different file, set the
       value of the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable.

       If you do not want to maintain a history file, first remove
       .mysql_history if it exists, and then use either of the following

       o  Set the MYSQL_HISTFILE variable to /dev/null. To cause this setting
          to take effect each time you log in, put the setting in one of your
          shell's startup files.

       o  Create .mysql_history as a symbolic link to /dev/null:

          shell> ln -s /dev/null $HOME/.mysql_history
       You need do this only once.

       mysql sends each SQL statement that you issue to the server to be
       executed. There is also a set of commands that mysql itself interprets.
       For a list of these commands, type help or \h at the mysql> prompt:

          mysql> help
          MySQL commands:
          ?         (\?) Synonym for `help'.
          clear     (\c) Clear command.
          connect   (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host.
          delimiter (\d) Set statement delimiter. NOTE: Takes the rest of the line as
                         new delimiter.
          edit      (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR.
          ego       (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically.
          exit      (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit.
          go        (\g) Send command to mysql server.
          help      (\h) Display this help.
          nopager   (0 Disable pager, print to stdout.
          notee     (\t) Don't write into outfile.
          pager     (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER.
          print     (\p) Print current command.
          prompt    (\R) Change your mysql prompt.
          quit      (\q) Quit mysql.
          rehash    (\#) Rebuild completion hash.
          source    (\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument.
          status    (\s) Get status information from the server.
          system    (\!) Execute a system shell command.
          tee       (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given
          use       (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument.
          charset   (\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing binlog with multi-byte charsets.
          warnings  (\W) Show warnings after every statement.
          nowarning (\w) Don't show warnings after every statement.
          For server side help, type 'help contents'

       Each command has both a long and short form. The long form is not case
       sensitive; the short form is. The long form can be followed by an
       optional semicolon terminator, but the short form should not.

       If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
       search string to access server-side help from the contents of the MySQL
       Reference Manual. For more information, see the section called "MYSQL

       In the delimiter command, you should avoid the use of the backslash
       ('\') character because that is the escape character for MySQL.

       The edit, nopager, pager, and system commands work only in Unix.

       The status command provides some information about the connection and
       the server you are using. If you are running in --safe-updates mode,
       status also prints the values for the mysql variables that affect your

       To log queries and their output, use the tee command. All the data
       displayed on the screen is appended into a given file. This can be very
       useful for debugging purposes also. You can enable this feature on the
       command line with the --tee option, or interactively with the tee
       command. The tee file can be disabled interactively with the notee
       command. Executing tee again re-enables logging. Without a parameter,
       the previous file is used. Note that tee flushes query results to the
       file after each statement, just before mysql prints its next prompt.

       By using the --pager option, it is possible to browse or search query
       results in interactive mode with Unix programs such as less, more, or
       any other similar program. If you specify no value for the option,
       mysql checks the value of the PAGER environment variable and sets the
       pager to that. Output paging can be enabled interactively with the
       pager command and disabled with nopager. The command takes an optional
       argument; if given, the paging program is set to that. With no
       argument, the pager is set to the pager that was set on the command
       line, or stdout if no pager was specified.

       Output paging works only in Unix because it uses the popen() function,
       which does not exist on Windows. For Windows, the tee option can be
       used instead to save query output, although this is not as convenient
       as pager for browsing output in some situations.

       Here are a few tips about the pager command:

       o  You can use it to write to a file and the results go only to the

          mysql> pager cat > /tmp/log.txt
       You can also pass any options for the program that you want to use as
       your pager:

          mysql> pager less -n -i -S

       o  In the preceding example, note the -S option. You may find it very
          useful for browsing wide query results. Sometimes a very wide result
          set is difficult to read on the screen. The -S option to less can
          make the result set much more readable because you can scroll it
          horizontally using the left-arrow and right-arrow keys. You can also
          use -S interactively within less to switch the horizontal-browse
          mode on and off. For more information, read the less manual page:

          shell> man less

       o  You can specify very complex pager commands for handling query

          mysql> pager cat | tee /dr1/tmp/res.txt \
                    | tee /dr2/tmp/res2.txt | less -n -i -S
       In this example, the command would send query results to two files in
       two different directories on two different filesystems mounted on /dr1
       and /dr2, yet still display the results onscreen via less.

       You can also combine the tee and pager functions. Have a tee file
       enabled and pager set to less, and you are able to browse the results
       using the less program and still have everything appended into a file
       the same time. The difference between the Unix tee used with the pager
       command and the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in tee
       works even if you do not have the Unix tee available. The built-in tee
       also logs everything that is printed on the screen, whereas the Unix
       tee used with pager does not log quite that much. Additionally, tee
       file logging can be turned on and off interactively from within mysql.
       This is useful when you want to log some queries to a file, but not

       From MySQL 4.0.2 on, the default mysql> prompt can be reconfigured. The
       string for defining the prompt can contain the following special

       |Option                 | Description                           |
       |\t                     | A tab character                       |
       |T}:T{ A space (a space |                                       |
       |follows the backslash) |                                       |
       |\_                     | A space                               |
       |\R                     | The current time, in                  |
       |                       | 24-hour military time                 |
       |                       | (0-23)                                |
       |\r                     | The current time, standard            |
       |                       | 12-hour time (1-12)                   |
       |\m                     | Minutes of the current                |
       |                       | time                                  |
       |\y                     | The current year, two                 |
       |                       | digits                                |
       |\Y                     | The current year, four                |
       |                       | digits                                |
       |\D                     | The full current date                 |
       |\s                     | Seconds of the current                |
       |                       | time                                  |
       |\v                     | The server version                    |
       |\w                     | The current day of the                |
       |                       | week in three-letter                  |
       |                       | format (Mon, Tue, ...)                |
       |\P                     | am/pm                                 |
       |\o                     | The current month in                  |
       |                       | numeric format                        |
       |\O                     | The current month in                  |
       |                       | three-letter format (Jan,             |
       |                       | Feb, ...)                             |
       |\c                     | A counter that increments             |
       |                       | for each statement you                |
       |                       | issue                                 |
       |\S                     | Semicolon                             |
       |\'                     | Single quote                          |
       |\"                     | Double quote                          |
       |\d                     | The default database                  |
       |\h                     | The server host                       |
       |\p                     | The current TCP/IP port or            |
       |                       | socket file                           |
       |\u                     | Your username                         |
       |\U                     | Your full                             |
       |                       |                   user_name@host_name |
       |                       |                   account             |
       |                       | name                                  |
       |\T}:T{ A literal '\'   |                                       |
       |backslash character    |                                       |
       |                       | A newline character                   |

       '\' followed by any other letter just becomes that letter.

       If you specify the prompt command with no argument, mysql resets the
       prompt to the default of mysql>.

       You can set the prompt in several ways:

       o  Use an environment variable.  You can set the MYSQL_PS1 environment
          variable to a prompt string. For example:

          shell> export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "

       o  Use a command-line option.  You can set the --prompt option on the
          command line to mysql. For example:

          shell> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
          (user@host) [database]>

       o  Use an option file.  You can set the prompt option in the [mysql]
          group of any MySQL option file, such as /etc/my.cnf or the .my.cnf
          file in your home directory. For example:

          prompt=(\\u@\\h) [\\d]>\\_
       In this example, note that the backslashes are doubled. If you set the
       prompt using the prompt option in an option file, it is advisable to
       double the backslashes when using the special prompt options. There is
       some overlap in the set of allowable prompt options and the set of
       special escape sequences that are recognized in option files. (These
       sequences are listed in Section 3.2, "Using Option Files".) The overlap
       may cause you problems if you use single backslashes. For example, \s
       is interpreted as a space rather than as the current seconds value. The
       following example shows how to define a prompt within an option file to
       include the current time in HH:MM:SS> format:

          prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> "

       o  Set the prompt interactively.  You can change your prompt
          interactively by using the prompt (or \R) command. For example:

          mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_
          PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_'
          (user@host) [database]>
          (user@host) [database]> prompt
          Returning to default PROMPT of mysql>


          mysql> help search_string

       As of MySQL 4.1, if you provide an argument to the help command, mysql
       uses it as a search string to access server-side help from the contents
       of the MySQL Reference Manual. The proper operation of this command
       requires that the help tables in the mysql database be initialized with
       help topic information (see the section called "SERVER-SIDE HELP").

       If there is no match for the search string, the search fails:

          mysql> help me
          Nothing found
          Please try to run 'help contents' for a list of all accessible topics

       Use help contents to see a list of the help categories:

          mysql> help contents
          You asked for help about help category: "Contents"
          For more information, type 'help <item>', where <item> is one of the
          following categories:
             Account Management
             Data Definition
             Data Manipulation
             Data Types
             Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY
             Geographic Features
             Language Structure
             Storage Engines
             Table Maintenance

       If the search string matches multiple items, mysql shows a list of
       matching topics:

          mysql> help logs
          Many help items for your request exist.
          To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
          where <item> is one of the following topics:
             SHOW BINARY LOGS
             SHOW ENGINE
             SHOW LOGS

       Use a topic as the search string to see the help entry for that topic:

          mysql> help show binary logs
          Name: 'SHOW BINARY LOGS'
          Lists the binary log files on the server. This statement is used as
          part of the procedure described in [purge-master-logs], that shows how
          to determine which logs can be purged.
          mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
          | Log_name      | File_size |
          | binlog.000015 |    724935 |
          | binlog.000016 |    733481 |

       The mysql client typically is used interactively, like this:

          shell> mysql db_name

       However, it is also possible to put your SQL statements in a file and
       then tell mysql to read its input from that file. To do so, create a
       text file text_file that contains the statements you wish to execute.
       Then invoke mysql as shown here:

          shell> mysql db_name < text_file

       If you place a USE db_name statement as the first statement in the
       file, it is unnecessary to specify the database name on the command

          shell> mysql < text_file

       If you are already running mysql, you can execute an SQL script file
       using the source or \.  command:

          mysql> source file_name
          mysql> \. file_name

       Sometimes you may want your script to display progress information to
       the user. For this you can insert statements like this:

          SELECT '<info_to_display>' AS ' ';

       The statement shown outputs <info_to_display>.

       For more information about batch mode, see Section 5, "Using mysql in
       Batch Mode".

       This section describes some techniques that can help you use mysql more

   Displaying Query Results Vertically
       Some query results are much more readable when displayed vertically,
       instead of in the usual horizontal table format. Queries can be
       displayed vertically by terminating the query with \G instead of a
       semicolon. For example, longer text values that include newlines often
       are much easier to read with vertical output:

          mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 LIMIT 300,1\G
          *************************** 1. row ***************************
            msg_nro: 3068
               date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50
          time_zone: +0200
          mail_from: Monty
            mail_to: "Thimble Smith" <>
                sbj: UTF-8
                txt: >>>>> "Thimble" == Thimble Smith writes:
          Thimble> Hi.  I think this is a good idea.  Is anyone familiar
          Thimble> with UTF-8 or Unicode? Otherwise, I'll put this on my
          Thimble> TODO list and see what happens.
          Yes, please do that.
               file: inbox-jani-1
               hash: 190402944
          1 row in set (0.09 sec)

   Using the --safe-updates Option
       For beginners, a useful startup option is --safe-updates (or
       --i-am-a-dummy, which has the same effect). This option was introduced
       in MySQL 3.23.11. It is helpful for cases when you might have issued a
       DELETE FROM tbl_name statement but forgotten the WHERE clause.
       Normally, such a statement deletes all rows from the table. With
       --safe-updates, you can delete rows only by specifying the key values
       that identify them. This helps prevent accidents.

       When you use the --safe-updates option, mysql issues the following
       statement when it connects to the MySQL server:


       See Section 5.3, "SET Syntax".

       The SET statement has the following effects:

       o  You are not allowed to execute an UPDATE or DELETE statement unless
          you specify a key constraint in the WHERE clause or provide a LIMIT
          clause (or both). For example:

          UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val WHERE key_column=val;
          UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val LIMIT 1;

       o  The server limits all large SELECT results to 1,000 rows unless the
          statement includes a LIMIT clause.

       o  The server aborts multiple-table SELECT statements that probably
          need to examine more than 1,000,000 row combinations.

       To specify limits different from 1,000 and 1,000,000, you can override
       the defaults by using the --select_limit and --max_join_size options:

          shell> mysql --safe-updates --select_limit=500 --max_join_size=10000

   Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect
       If the mysql client loses its connection to the server while sending a
       query, it immediately and automatically tries to reconnect once to the
       server and send the query again. However, even if mysql succeeds in
       reconnecting, your first connection has ended and all your previous
       session objects and settings are lost: temporary tables, the autocommit
       mode, and user-defined and session variables. Also, any current
       transaction rolls back. This behavior may be dangerous for you, as in
       the following example where the server was shut down and restarted
       without you knowing it:

          mysql> SET @a=1;
          Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
          mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(@a);
          ERROR 2006: MySQL server has gone away
          No connection. Trying to reconnect...
          Connection id:    1
          Current database: test
          Query OK, 1 row affected (1.30 sec)
          mysql> SELECT * FROM t;
          | a    |
          | NULL |
          1 row in set (0.05 sec)

       The @a user variable has been lost with the connection, and after the
       reconnection it is undefined. If it is important to have mysql
       terminate with an error if the connection has been lost, you can start
       the mysql client with the --skip-reconnect option.

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       mysql_explain_log(1), mysql_fix_privilege_tables(1), mysql_zap(1),
       mysqlaccess(1), mysqladmin(1), mysqlbinlog(1), mysqlcheck(1),
       mysqld(1), mysqld(8), mysqld_multi(1), mysqld_safe(1), mysqldump(1),
       mysqlhotcopy(1), mysqlimport(1), mysqlshow(1), pack_isam(1), perror(1),
       replace(1), safe_mysqld(1)

       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available online at

       MySQL AB (  This software comes with no

MySQL 4.1                         11/02/2006                          MYSQL(1)