# Math::Trig

```Math::Trig(3)          Perl Programmers Reference Guide          Math::Trig(3)

NAME
Math::Trig - trigonometric functions

SYNOPSIS
use Math::Trig;

\$x = tan(0.9);
\$y = acos(3.7);
\$z = asin(2.4);

\$halfpi = pi/2;

DESCRIPTION
"Math::Trig" defines many trigonometric functions not defined by the
core Perl which defines only the "sin()" and "cos()".  The constant pi
is also defined as are a few convenience functions for angle conver-
sions.

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
The tangent

tan

The cofunctions of the sine, cosine, and tangent (cosec/csc and
cotan/cot are aliases)

csc, cosec, sec, sec, cot, cotan

The arcus (also known as the inverse) functions of the sine, cosine,
and tangent

asin, acos, atan

The principal value of the arc tangent of y/x

atan2(y, x)

The arcus cofunctions of the sine, cosine, and tangent (acosec/acsc and
acotan/acot are aliases)

acsc, acosec, asec, acot, acotan

The hyperbolic sine, cosine, and tangent

sinh, cosh, tanh

The cofunctions of the hyperbolic sine, cosine, and tangent
(cosech/csch and cotanh/coth are aliases)

csch, cosech, sech, coth, cotanh

The arcus (also known as the inverse) functions of the hyperbolic sine,
cosine, and tangent

asinh, acosh, atanh

The arcus cofunctions of the hyperbolic sine, cosine, and tangent
(acsch/acosech and acoth/acotanh are aliases)

acsch, acosech, asech, acoth, acotanh

The trigonometric constant pi is also defined.

\$pi2 = 2 * pi;

ERRORS DUE TO DIVISION BY ZERO

The following functions

acoth
acsc
acsch
asec
asech
atanh
cot
coth
csc
csch
sec
sech
tan
tanh

cannot be computed for all arguments because that would mean dividing
by zero or taking logarithm of zero. These situations cause fatal run-
time errors looking like this

cot(0): Division by zero.
(Because in the definition of cot(0), the divisor sin(0) is 0)
Died at ...

or

atanh(-1): Logarithm of zero.
Died at...

For the "csc", "cot", "asec", "acsc", "acot", "csch", "coth", "asech",
"acsch", the argument cannot be 0 (zero).  For the "atanh", "acoth",
the argument cannot be 1 (one).  For the "atanh", "acoth", the argument
cannot be "-1" (minus one).  For the "tan", "sec", "tanh", "sech", the
argument cannot be pi/2 + k * pi, where k is any integer.

SIMPLE (REAL) ARGUMENTS, COMPLEX RESULTS

Please note that some of the trigonometric functions can break out from
the real axis into the complex plane. For example asin(2) has no defi-
nition for plain real numbers but it has definition for complex num-
bers.

In Perl terms this means that supplying the usual Perl numbers (also
known as scalars, please see perldata) as input for the trigonometric
functions might produce as output results that no more are simple real
numbers: instead they are complex numbers.

The "Math::Trig" handles this by using the "Math::Complex" package
which knows how to handle complex numbers, please see Math::Complex for
more information. In practice you need not to worry about getting com-
plex numbers as results because the "Math::Complex" takes care of
details like for example how to display complex numbers. For example:

print asin(2), "\n";

should produce something like this (take or leave few last decimals):

1.5707963267949-1.31695789692482i

That is, a complex number with the real part of approximately 1.571 and
the imaginary part of approximately "-1.317".

PLANE ANGLE CONVERSIONS
(Plane, 2-dimensional) angles may be converted with the following func-
tions.

The full circle is 2 pi radians or 360 degrees or 400 gradians.  The
result is by default wrapped to be inside the [0, {2pi,360,400}[ cir-
cle.  If you don't want this, supply a true second argument:

You can also do the wrapping explicitly by rad2rad(), deg2deg(), and

Radial coordinate systems are the spherical and the cylindrical sys-
tems, explained shortly in more detail.

You can import radial coordinate conversion functions by using the

(\$rho, \$theta, \$z)     = cartesian_to_cylindrical(\$x, \$y, \$z);
(\$rho, \$theta, \$phi)   = cartesian_to_spherical(\$x, \$y, \$z);
(\$x, \$y, \$z)           = cylindrical_to_cartesian(\$rho, \$theta, \$z);
(\$rho_s, \$theta, \$phi) = cylindrical_to_spherical(\$rho_c, \$theta, \$z);
(\$x, \$y, \$z)           = spherical_to_cartesian(\$rho, \$theta, \$phi);
(\$rho_c, \$theta, \$z)   = spherical_to_cylindrical(\$rho_s, \$theta, \$phi);

All angles are in radians.

COORDINATE SYSTEMS

Cartesian coordinates are the usual rectangular (x, y, z)-coordinates.

Spherical coordinates, (rho, theta, pi), are three-dimensional coordi-
nates which define a point in three-dimensional space.  They are based
on a sphere surface.  The radius of the sphere is rho, also known as
the radial coordinate.  The angle in the xy-plane (around the z-axis)
is theta, also known as the azimuthal coordinate.  The angle from the
z-axis is phi, also known as the polar coordinate.  The `North Pole' is
therefore 0, 0, rho, and the `Bay of Guinea' (think of the missing big
chunk of Africa) 0, pi/2, rho.  In geographical terms phi is latitude
(northward positive, southward negative) and theta is longitude (east-
ward positive, westward negative).

BEWARE: some texts define theta and phi the other way round, some texts
define the phi to start from the horizontal plane, some texts use r in
place of rho.

Cylindrical coordinates, (rho, theta, z), are three-dimensional coordi-
nates which define a point in three-dimensional space.  They are based
on a cylinder surface.  The radius of the cylinder is rho, also known
as the radial coordinate.  The angle in the xy-plane (around the
z-axis) is theta, also known as the azimuthal coordinate.  The third
coordinate is the z, pointing up from the theta-plane.

3-D ANGLE CONVERSIONS

Conversions to and from spherical and cylindrical coordinates are
available.  Please notice that the conversions are not necessarily
reversible because of the equalities like pi angles being equal to -pi
angles.

cartesian_to_cylindrical
(\$rho, \$theta, \$z) = cartesian_to_cylindrical(\$x, \$y, \$z);

cartesian_to_spherical
(\$rho, \$theta, \$phi) = cartesian_to_spherical(\$x, \$y, \$z);

cylindrical_to_cartesian
(\$x, \$y, \$z) = cylindrical_to_cartesian(\$rho, \$theta, \$z);

cylindrical_to_spherical
(\$rho_s, \$theta, \$phi) = cylindrical_to_spherical(\$rho_c, \$theta, \$z);

Notice that when \$z is not 0 \$rho_s is not equal to \$rho_c.

spherical_to_cartesian
(\$x, \$y, \$z) = spherical_to_cartesian(\$rho, \$theta, \$phi);

spherical_to_cylindrical
(\$rho_c, \$theta, \$z) = spherical_to_cylindrical(\$rho_s, \$theta, \$phi);

Notice that when \$z is not 0 \$rho_c is not equal to \$rho_s.

GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCES AND DIRECTIONS
You can compute spherical distances, called great circle distances, by
importing the great_circle_distance() function:

use Math::Trig 'great_circle_distance';

\$distance = great_circle_distance(\$theta0, \$phi0, \$theta1, \$phi1, [, \$rho]);

The great circle distance is the shortest distance between two points
on a sphere.  The distance is in \$rho units.  The \$rho is optional, it
defaults to 1 (the unit sphere), therefore the distance defaults to

If you think geographically the theta are longitudes: zero at the
Greenwhich meridian, eastward positive, westward negative--and the phi
are latitudes: zero at the North Pole, northward positive, southward
negative.  NOTE: this formula thinks in mathematics, not geographi-
cally: the phi zero is at the North Pole, not at the Equator on the
west coast of Africa (Bay of Guinea).  You need to subtract your geo-
graphical coordinates from pi/2 (also known as 90 degrees).

\$distance = great_circle_distance(\$lon0, pi/2 - \$lat0,
\$lon1, pi/2 - \$lat1, \$rho);

The direction you must follow the great circle can be computed by the
great_circle_direction() function:

use Math::Trig 'great_circle_direction';

\$direction = great_circle_direction(\$theta0, \$phi0, \$theta1, \$phi1);

The result is in radians, zero indicating straight north, pi or -pi
straight south, pi/2 straight west, and -pi/2 straight east.

Notice that the resulting directions might be somewhat surprising if
you are looking at a flat worldmap: in such map projections the great
circles quite often do not look like the shortest routes-- but for
example the shortest possible routes from Europe or North America to
Asia do often cross the polar regions.

EXAMPLES
To calculate the distance between London (51.3N 0.5W) and Tokyo (35.7N
139.8E) in kilometers:

use Math::Trig qw(great_circle_distance deg2rad);

# Notice the 90 - latitude: phi zero is at the North Pole.

\$km = great_circle_distance(@L, @T, 6378);

The direction you would have to go from London to Tokyo

use Math::Trig qw(great_circle_direction);

\$rad = great_circle_direction(@L, @T);

CAVEAT FOR GREAT CIRCLE FORMULAS

The answers may be off by few percentages because of the irregular
(slightly aspherical) form of the Earth.  The formula used for grear
circle distances

lat0 = 90 degrees - phi0
lat1 = 90 degrees - phi1
d = R * arccos(cos(lat0) * cos(lat1) * cos(lon1 - lon01) +
sin(lat0) * sin(lat1))

is also somewhat unreliable for small distances (for locations sepa-
rated less than about five degrees) because it uses arc cosine which is
rather ill-conditioned for values close to zero.

BUGS
Saying "use Math::Trig;" exports many mathematical routines in the
caller environment and even overrides some ("sin", "cos").  This is
construed as a feature by the Authors, actually... ;-)

The code is not optimized for speed, especially because we use
"Math::Complex" and thus go quite near complex numbers while doing the
computations even when the arguments are not. This, however, cannot be
completely avoided if we want things like asin(2) to give an answer
instead of giving a fatal runtime error.

AUTHORS
Jarkko Hietaniemi <jhi@iki.fi> and Raphael Manfredi <Raphael_Man-
fredi@pobox.com>.

perl v5.8.6                       2001-09-21                     Math::Trig(3)
```