dnssec-signzone - DNSSEC zone signing tool
dnssec-signzone [ -a ] [ -c class ] [ -d directory ] [ -s start-time
] [ -e end-time ] [ -f output-file ] [ -h ] [ -i interval ] [ -n
nthreads ] [ -o origin ] [ -p ] [ -r randomdev ] [ -t ] [ -v level
] zonefile [ key... ]
dnssec-signzone signs a zone. It generates NXT and SIG records and pro-
duces a signed version of the zone. If there is a signedkey file from
the zone's parent, the parent's signatures will be incorporated into
the generated signed zone file. The security status of delegations from
the the signed zone (that is, whether the child zones are secure or
not) is determined by the presence or absence of a signedkey file for
each child zone.
-a Verify all generated signatures.
Specifies the DNS class of the zone.
Look for signedkey files in directory as the directory
Specify the date and time when the generated SIG records become
valid. This can be either an absolute or relative time. An abso-
lute start time is indicated by a number in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS nota-
tion; 20000530144500 denotes 14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000. A
relative start time is indicated by +N, which is N seconds from
the current time. If no start-time is specified, the current
time is used.
Specify the date and time when the generated SIG records expire.
As with start-time, an absolute time is indicated in YYYYMMDDHH-
MMSS notation. A time relative to the start time is indicated
with +N, which is N seconds from the start time. A time realtive
to the current time is indicated with now+N. If no end-time is
specified, 30 days from the start time is used as a default.
The name of the output file containing the signed zone. The
default is to append .signed to the input file.
-h Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to dnssec-
When a previously signed zone is passed as input, records may be
resigned. The interval option specifies the cycle interval as an
offset from the current time (in seconds). If a SIG record
expires after the cycle interval, it is retained. Otherwise, it
is considered to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.
The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference
between the signature end and start times. So if neither end-
time or start-time are specified, dnssec-signzone generates sig-
natures that are valid for 30 days, with a cycle interval of 7.5
days. Therefore, if any existing SIG records are due to expire
in less than 7.5 days, they would be replaced.
Specifies the number of threads to use. By default, one thread
is started for each detected CPU.
The zone origin. If not specified, the name of the zone file is
assumed to be the origin.
-p Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone. This is faster,
but less secure, than using real random data. This option may be
useful when signing large zones or when the entropy source is
Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating system does
not provide a /dev/random or equivalent device, the default
source of randomness is keyboard input. randomdev specifies the
name of a character device or file containing random data to be
used instead of the default. The special value keyboard indi-
cates that keyboard input should be used.
-t Print statistics at completion.
Sets the debugging level.
The file containing the zone to be signed. Sets the debugging
key The keys used to sign the zone. If no keys are specified, the
default all zone keys that have private key files in the current
The following command signs the example.com zone with the DSA key gen-
erated in the dnssec-keygen man page. The zone's keys must be in the
zone. If there are signedkey files associated with this zone or any
child zones, they must be in the current directory. example.com, the
following command would be issued:
dnssec-signzone -o example.com db.example.com Kexample.com.+003+26160
The command would print a string of the form:
In this example, dnssec-signzone creates the file db.exam-
ple.com.signed. This file should be referenced in a zone statement in a
dnssec-keygen(8), dnssec-signkey(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference
Manual, RFC 2535.
Internet Software Consortium
BIND9 June 30, 2000 DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)